Freebsd 常用命令

1.system configuration-disks

    partion layout and sizes

partition   size
            Minimum     Maximum

swap        RAM / 8     2 * RAM

/           256MB       512MB

/tmp        128MB       512MB

/var        128MB       1GB + RAM

/usr        1536MB      1.5GB++

内存 占用
vim /etc/rc.conf
tmpmfs="YES"
tmpsize="128m"

Swap

# swapinfo -h

#pstat -T

Adding More Swap space

# dd if=/dev/zero of=/swap0 bs=1024k count=256
# chown root:wheel /swap0
# chmod 0600 /swap0
#ls -l /swap0

-rw------ 1 root wheel 268435456 Apr 5 03:12 /swap0

vim /etc/rc.conf
swapfile="/swap0"

to make the new swap file active immediately

#mdconfig -l
    md0

#mdconfig -a -t vnode -f /swap0
    md1
#mdconfig -l -u 1
    md1 vnode 256M /swap0

# swapon /dev/md1

#swapinfo -h

swap encryption

 add .eli or .bde to the device name in the /etc/fstab

softupdates

# mount

# tunefs -n enable /

snapshots

# mksnap_ffs /var /var/snap1

# mount -u -o snapshot /var/snap1 /var

# fsck_ffs /var/snap1

# mdconfig -a -t vnode -f /var/snap1

# mount -r /dev/md2 /mnt

# mount

# umount /mnt

# mdconfig -d -u 2

# rm -f /var/snap1

Quotas

you should reconfig kernel and add the follow kernel config file
 option QUOTA

# vim /etc/rc.conf
    enable_quotas="YES"

# cat /etc/fstab
    /dev/ads1f   /usr/  ufs rw,usequota,groupquota 2 2
# quotacheck -a
    quotacheck: creating quota file //quota.user

# quotacheck -v

Assigning Quotas

hard limit
# edquota jdoe

soft limit
# edquota -t0

Dump and Restore

# dump -oauL -f /usr/dump1 /dev/ad0sla

# dump -lauL -f /usr/dump2 /dev/ad0sla

updates /etc/dumpdates with new backup dates

# cat /etc/dumpdates

# dump -oauL -f /dev/adosla | bzip2 | ssh admin@bkserver dd of=/usr/backup/server1.dump

A typical restore procedure would look like the following command lines;

# newfs /dev/da0sla
# mount /dev/da0sla /mnt
# cd /mnt
# restore -r -f /usr/dump1

# restore -i -f /usr/dump1

The tar cpio and pax Utilities

# tar cvf  backup.tar backup/

To update a barball , U flag is used;

# tar uvf backup.tar backup/

And x flag to extract the files from a tarball;

# tar xvf backup.tar

The -w flag used to create archive;

# pax -w -f backup.pax backup/

And -r to extract( or read ) the archive to currect directory;

# pax -r -f backup.pax

RAID0 -- Striping

#kldload geom_stripe

 This can also be done through the /boot/loader.conf file, to automatically  load the module during system boot up, by andding this line;
    geom_stripe_load="YES"

# gstripe create stripe1 /dev/da1 /dev/da2
# newfs /dev/stripe/stripe1

# mount /dev/stripe/stripe1 /mnt

# gstripe label stripe1 /dev/da1 /dev/da2

# gstripe stop stripe1

RAID1 -- Mirroring

# gmirror label -b round-robin mirror1 da0 da1

# newfs /dev/mirror/mirror1

# mount /dev/mirror/mirror1 /mnt

# gmirror insert mirror1 da2
# gmirror remove mirror1 da1

# gmirror configure -b load mirror1

# gconcat label concat1 da0 da1 da2

# newfs /dev/concat/concat1
# mount /dev/concat/concat1 /mnt

# gconcat lable concat1 da3 da4
# growfs /dev/concat/concat1