Git-flow 使用

简单来说,git-flow 就是在 git branch git tag基础上封装出来的代码分支管理模型,把实际开发模拟成master develop feature release hotfix support 几种场景,其中 master 对应发布上线,develop 对应开发,其他几个在不同的情况下出现。通过封装,git-flow 屏蔽了 git branch 等相对来说比较复杂生硬的命令(git branch 还是比较复杂的,尤其是在多分支情况下),简单而且规范的解决了代码分支管理问题。

安装 git-flow:

brew install git-flow

在一个全新目录下构建 git-flow 模型:

➜ git flow init

Initialized empty Git repository in /Users/fannheyward/flowTest/.git/

No branches exist yet. Base branches must be created now.

Branch name for production releases: [master]

Branch name for "next release" development: [develop]

How to name your supporting branch prefixes?

Feature branches? [feature/]

Release branches? [release/]

Hotfix branches? [hotfix/]

Support branches? [support/]

Version tag prefix? []

或者在现有的版本库构建:

➜ git flow init

Which branch should be used for bringing forth production releases?

  – master

Branch name for production releases: [master]

Branch name for "next release" development: [develop]

How to name your supporting branch prefixes?

Feature branches? [feature/]

Release branches? [release/]

Hotfix branches? [hotfix/]

Support branches? [support/]

Version tag prefix? []

中间会询问生成的分支名,直接回车默认。这样一个 git-flow 分支模型就初始化完成。

使用场景一:新功能开发,代号 f1

➜ git flow feature start f1

Switched to a new branch 'feature/f1'

Summary of actions:

- A new branch 'feature/f1' was created, based on 'develop'

- You are now on branch 'feature/f1'

Now, start committing on your feature. When done, use:

    git flow feature finish f1

git-flow 从 develop 分支创建了一个新的分支 feature/f1,并自动切换到这个分支下面。然后就可以进行 f1 功能开发,中间可以多次的 commit 操作。当功能完成后:

➜ git flow feature finish f1

Switched to branch 'develop'

Already up-to-date.

Deleted branch feature/f1 (was 7bb5749).

Summary of actions:

- The feature branch 'feature/f1' was merged into 'develop'

- Feature branch 'feature/f1' has been removed

- You are now on branch 'develop'

feature/f1 分支的代码会被合并到 develop 里面,然后删除该分支,切换回 develop. 到此,新功能开发这个场景完毕。在 f1 功能开发中,如果 f1 未完成,同时功能 f2 要开始进行,也是可以的。


使用场景二:发布上线,代号 0.1

➜ git flow release start 0.1

Switched to a new branch 'release/0.1'

Summary of actions:

- A new branch 'release/0.1' was created, based on 'develop'

- You are now on branch 'release/0.1'

Follow-up actions:

- Bump the version number now!

- Start committing last-minute fixes in preparing your release

- When done, run:

    git flow release finish '0.1'

git-flow 从 develop 分支创建一个新的分支 release/0.1,并切换到该分支下,接下来要做的就是修改版本号等发布操作。完成后:

➜ git flow release finish 0.1

Switched to branch 'master'

Merge made by the 'recursive' strategy.

f1      |    1 +

version |    1 +

2 files changed, 2 insertions(+)

create mode 100644 f1

create mode 100644 version

Switched to branch 'develop'

Merge made by the 'recursive' strategy.

version |    1 +

1 file changed, 1 insertion(+)

create mode 100644 version

Deleted branch release/0.1 (was d77df80).

Summary of actions:

- Latest objects have been fetched from 'origin'

- Release branch has been merged into 'master'

- The release was tagged '0.1'

- Release branch has been back-merged into 'develop'

- Release branch 'release/0.1' has been deleted

git-flow 会依次切换到 master develop 下合并 release/0.1 里的修改,然后用 git tag 的给当次发布打上 tag 0.1,可以通过 git tag 查看所有 tag:

➜ git:(master) git tag

0.1

0.2


使用场景三:紧急 bug 修正,代号 bug1

➜ git flow hotfix start bug1

Switched to a new branch 'hotfix/bug1'

Summary of actions:

- A new branch 'hotfix/bug1' was created, based on 'master'

- You are now on branch 'hotfix/bug1'

Follow-up actions:

- Bump the version number now!

- Start committing your hot fixes

- When done, run:

    git flow hotfix finish 'bug1'

git-flow 从 master 分支创建一个新的分支 hotfix/bug1,并切换到该分支下。接下来要做的就是修复 bug,完成后:

➜ git flow hotfix finish bug1

Switched to branch 'master'

Merge made by the 'recursive' strategy.

f1 |    2 +-

1 file changed, 1 insertion(+), 1 deletion(-)

Switched to branch 'develop'

Merge made by the 'recursive' strategy.

f1 |    2 +-

1 file changed, 1 insertion(+), 1 deletion(-)

Deleted branch hotfix/bug1 (was aa3ca2e).

Summary of actions:

- Latest objects have been fetched from 'origin'

- Hotfix branch has been merged into 'master'

- The hotfix was tagged 'bug1'

- Hotfix branch has been back-merged into 'develop'

- Hotfix branch 'hotfix/bug1' has been deleted

git-flow 会依次切换到 master develop 分支下合并 hotfix/bug1,然后删掉 hotfix/bug1。到此,hotfix 完成。

git-flow 的 feature release 都是从 develop 分支创建,hotfix support 都是从 master 分支创建。